Archive for Biomedical Research Ethics

Findings of Research Misconduct

Hat trick from ORI … (the first serving as a reminder why ORI is outside of the NIH)

Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case:

Based on the report of an investigation conducted by the NIH and additional analysis by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Bijan Ahvazi, PhD, former Director of the Laboratory of X-ray Crystallography, NIAMS, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by the Intramural Program.

ORI found that Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying data related to or in the following published papers:

  1. Ahvazi, B., Boeshans, K.M., Idler, W., Baxa, U., & Steinert, P.M. “Structural basis for the coordinated regulation of transglutaminase 3 by guanine nucleotides and calcium/magnesium.” J. Biol. Chem. 279(8):7180-92, 2004 Feb 20 (withdrawn) (hereinafter “JBC 2004a”)
  2. Ahvazi, B., Boeshans, K.M., & Steinert, P.M. “Crystal structure of transglutaminase 3 in complex with BMP: Structural basis for nucleotide specificity.” J. Biol. Chem. 279:26716-25, 2004 (withdrawn) (hereinafter “JBC 2004b”)
  3. Ahvazi, B., Boeshans, K.M., Idler, W.,& Cooper, A.J.L. “Crystal structure of transglutaminase 3-cystamine complex: Binding of two cystamines to the nucleotide-binding pocket.” M6:06060, Submitted to J. Biol. Chem., 2006 (rejected) (hereinafter “JBC 2006”).

Specifically, ORI finds that Respondent:

1. falsely labeled Figure 3A in JBC 2004b representing an isothermal calorimetric titration experiment using guanine monophosphate (GMP) and transglutaminase 3 (TGase 3) when the figure was actually a relabeled version of an unrelated experiment that Respondent previously published as Figure 1A in JBC 2004a.

2. falsified Figure 4B, Figure 4C, and Figure 6D in JBC 2004b and Figure 5E in JBC 2006, by altering the original data in the following ways to represent the desired experiment:

a. falsified Figure 4B in JBC 2004b, by adding multiple data points to titration curves for four different concentrations of TGase 3 bound by different concentrations of tagged GTP[gamma]S and deleting 2 outlying data points from one of the curves

b. falsified Figure 4C in JBC 2004 b, representing a competition assay for the release of tagged GTPγS bound to TGase 3, by (1) falsely claiming that the release of the tagged nucleotide occurred with the addition of untagged GMP, when the result was from an assay using untagged GDP, (2) adding additional data points onto the titration curves, and (3) altering the scale of the abscissa

c. falsified Figure 6D in JBC 2004b, by using the false Figure 4B to also represent an additional competition experiment using unmodified nucleotide analog compounds and ATP; specifically, Respondent (1) falsified the units and labels of the axes, (2) falsified the labels of the curves, and (3) vertically inverted the curves

d. falsified Figure 5E in the JBC 2006 manuscript, representing a competition experiment for the release of tagged GTPγS bound to TGase 3 with the addition of cystamine, when the actual experiment was a competition experiment with the addition of untagged nucleotides.

Dr. Ahvazi has entered into a Voluntary Settlement Agreement and has voluntarily agreed for a period of 2 years, beginning on October 7, 2014:

(1) To have his U.S. PHS research supervised and to notify any employer(s)/institution(s) at which he may participate in PHS funded projects of the terms of his supervision; Respondent agrees that prior to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on which the Respondent’s participation is proposed and prior to Respondent’s participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of Respondent’s duties is submitted to ORI for approval; the supervision plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of Respondent’s research; Respondent agrees that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a supervision plan is submitted to and approved by ORI; Respondent agrees to maintain responsibility for compliance with the agreed upon supervision plan;

(2) that any institution employing him to work on PHS-supported projects shall submit, in conjunction with each application for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research in which Respondent is involved, a certification to ORI that the data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the data, procedures, and methodology are accurately reported in the application, report, manuscript, or abstract; and

(3) to exclude himself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant.


Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case:

Based on the report of an investigation conducted by UT Southwestern and analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that  Takao Takahashi, MD, PhD, currently a faculty member in the Department of Surgical Oncology, Gifu University, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan, and formerly a Visiting Scientist in the Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, UT Southwestern, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by grant U01 CA084971.

ORI found that Respondent knowingly, intentionally, and recklessly falsified data reported in 4 publications:

  1. Takahashi, T., Shivapurkar, N., Reddy, J., Shigematsu, H., Miyajima, K., Suzuki, M., Toyooka, S., Zöchbauer-Müeller, S., Drach, J., Parikh, G., Zheng, Y., Feng, Z., Kroft, S.H., Timmons, C., McKenna, R.W., & Gazdar, A.F. “DNA methylation profiles of lymphoid and hematopoietic malignancies.” Clin Cancer Res. 10(9):2928-35, 2004 May 1 (hereafter referred to as “CCR 2004”); Retraction in: Clin Cancer Res. 19(1):307, 2013 Jan 1
  2. Takahashi, T., Suzuki, M., Shigematsu, H., Shivapurkar, N., Echebiri, C., Nomura, M., Stastny, V., Augustus, M., Wu, C.W., Wistuba, I.I., Meltzer, S.J., & Gazdar, A.F. “Aberrant methylation of Reprimo n human malignancies.” Int J Cancer 115(4):503-10, 2005 Jul 1 (hereafter referred to as “IJC 2005”); Retraction in: Int J. Cancer 132(2):498, 2013, Jan 15
  3. Takahashi, T., Shigematsu, H., Shivapurkar, N., Reddy, J., Zheng, Y., Feng, Z., Suzuki, M., Noomura, M., Augustus, M., Yin, J., Meltzer, S.J., & Gazdar, A.F. “Aberrant promoter methylation of multiple genes during multistep pathogenesis of colorectal cancers.” Int J Cancer 118(4):924-31, 2006 Feb 15 (hereafter referred to as “IJC 2006”); Retraction in: Int J Cancer 132(2):499, 2013 Jan 15
  4. Tokuyama, Y., Takahashi, T., Okumura, N., Nonaka, K., Kawaguchi, Y., Yamaguchi, K., Osada, S., Gazdar, A., & Yoshida, K. “Aberrant methylation of heparan sulfate glucosamine 3-O-sulfotransferase 2 genes as a biomarker in colorectal cancer.” Anticancer Res. 30(12):4811-8, 2010 Dec (hereafter referred to as “AR 2010”); Retraction in: Anticancer Res. 32(11):5138, 2012 Nov.

Respondent falsified data representing glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) loading controls and methylated/unmethylated PCR in RT-PCR gel panels.

Specifically, ORI found by a preponderance of the evidence that Respondent engaged in research misconduct by knowingly, intentionally, and recklessly falsely reporting the results of RT-PCR experiments by:

1. Reusing and relabeling an image and claiming it represents different experiments of human tumor cell lines subjected to different treatments; specifically, an identical image was used to represent the:

(a) GAPDH RT-PCR panels of several lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and colorectal cancer cell lines in CCR 2004, Figures 1A and 1B, IJC 2005, Figure 1A, IJC 2006, Figures 1A and 2A, and AR 2010, Figure 1A

(b) GAPDH RT-PCR panels of the lymphoma cell lines BC-1 and Raji in CCR 2004, Figure 1B, lanes 1-3, and the colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and COLO201 in AR 2010, Figure 1C, lanes 4-6

(c) unmethylated form of p16 (p16UM) controls in the methylation-specific PCR (MSP) panels for the leukemia and multiple myeloma samples in CCR 2004, Figure 2

(d) p16UM MSP panels for the lymphoma and leukemia samples in CCR 2004, Figure 2, and the unmethylated bands MSP panel for the colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line in IJC 2005, Figure 5.

2. Manipulating an image and claiming it represents a gel with contiguous lanes; specifically, the RT-PCR products in the lanes of gels were cropped, spliced, and pasted together to form a single image for the MSP panels in IJC 2006, Figure 3.

Dr. Takahashi has entered into a Voluntary Settlement Agreement and has voluntarily agreed for a period of 3 years, beginning on August 26, 2014:

(1) To have his research supervised; Respondent agrees that prior to the submission of an application for U.S. PHS support for a research project on which the Respondent’s participation is proposed and prior to Respondent’s participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of Respondent’s duties is submitted to ORI for approval; the supervision plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of Respondent’s research; Respondent agrees that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a supervision plan is submitted to and approved by ORI; Respondent agrees to maintain responsibility for compliance with the agreed upon supervision plan;

(2) that any institution employing him shall submit, in conjunction with each application for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research in which Respondent is involved, a certification to ORI that the data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the data, procedures, and methodology are accurately reported in the application, report, manuscript, or abstract; and

(3) to exclude himself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant.


Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case:

Based on the report of an investigation conducted by UT Southwestern and analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Makoto Suzuki, MD, currently a Professor in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan, and formerly a Visiting Scientist in the Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, UT Southwestern, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by grants P50 CA070907 and U01 CA084971.

ORI found that Respondent knowingly, intentionally, and recklessly falsified data reported in 6 publications:

  1. Suzuki, M., Hao, C., Takahashi, T., Shigematsu, H., Shivapurkar, N., Sathyanarayana, U.G., Iizasa, T., Fujisawa, T., Hiroshima, K., & Gazdar, A.F. “Aberrant methylation of SPARC in human lung cancers.” Br J Cancer 92(5):942-8, 2005 Mar 14 (hereafter referred to as “BJC 2005-1”); Retraction in: Br J Cancer 108(3):744, 2013 Feb 19
  2. Suzuki, M., Shigematsu, H., Shames, D.S., Sunaga, N., Takahashi, T., Shivapurkar, N., Iizasa, T., Frankel, E.P., Minna, J.D., Fujisawa, T., & Gazdar, A.F. “DNA methylation associated inactivation of TGFbeta-related genes DRM/Gremlin, RUNX3, and HPP1 in human cancers.” Br J Cancer 93(9):1029-37, 2005 Oct 31 (hereafter referred to as “BJC 2005-2”); Retraction in: Br J Cancer 109(12)3132, 2013 Dec 10
  3. Suzuki, M., Shigematsu, H., Takahashi, T., Shivapurkar, N., Sathyanarayana, U.G., Iizasa, T., Fujisawa, T., & Gazdar, A.F. “Aberrant methylation of Reprimo in lung cancer.” Lung Cancer 47(3):309-14; 2005 Mar (hereafter referred to as “LC 2005”); Retraction in: Lung Cancer 85(2):337, 2014 August
  4. Suzuki, M., Toyooka, S., Shivapurkar, N., Shigematsu, H., Miyajima, K., Takahashi, T., Stastny, V., Zern, A.L., Fujisawa, T., Pass, H.I., Carbone, M., & Gazdar, A.F. “Aberrant methylation profile of human malignant mesotheliomas and its relationship to SV40 infection.” Oncogene 24(7):1302-8, 2005 Feb 10 (hereafter referred to as “ONC 2005”); Retraction in: Oncogene 33(21):2814, 2014 May 22
  5. Suzuki, M., Shigematsu, H., Shivapurkar, N., Reddy, J., Miyajima, K., Takahashi, T., Gazdar, A.F., & Frenkel, E.P. “Methylation of apoptosis related genes in the pathogenesis and prognosis of prostate cancer.” Cancer Lett. 242(2):222-30, 2006 Oct 28 (hereafter referred to as “CL 2006”)
  6. Suzuki, M., Shigematsu, H., Shames, D.S., Sunaga, N., Takahashi, T., Shivapurkar, N., Iizasa, T., Minna, J.D., Fujisawa, T., & Gazdar, A.F. “Methylation and gene silencing of the Ras-related GTPase gene in lung and breast cancers.” Ann Surg Oncol. 14(4):1397-404, 2007 Apr (hereafter referred to as “ASO 2007”).

Respondent falsified data representing GAPDH loading controls and methylated/unmethylated PCR in RT-PCR gel panels.

Specifically, ORI found by a preponderance of the evidence that Respondent engaged in research misconduct by knowingly, intentionally, and recklessly falsely reporting the results of RT-PCR experiments by:

1. Reusing and relabeling an image and claiming it represents different experiments of human tumor cell lines subjected to different treatments; specifically, an identical image was used to represent the:

(a) GAPDH RT-PCR panels in BJC 2005-01, Figure 1A, lanes 4-12, and Figure 1C, lanes 4-12

(b) GAPDH RT-PCR panels in BJC 2005-2, Figures 1A and 1B, and ASO 2007, Figures 1A and 1B

(c) unmethylated form of p16 (p16U) RT-PCR panel in CL 2006, Figure 1, lanes 3-10, positive and negative controls, and the p16 U RT-PCR panel in ONC 2005, Figure 2A.

2. Manipulating an image and claiming it represents a gel with contiguous lanes; specifically, the RT-PCR products in the lanes of gels were cropped, spliced, and pasted together to form a single image for the:

(a) GAPDH RT-PCR panels in LC 2005, Figures 1A and 1B

(b) methylated form of Decoy receptor 2 MSP panel in CL 2006, Figure 1

(c) methylated form of small Ras-related GTPase MSP panel in ASO 2007, Figure 3B.

Dr. Suzuki has entered into a Voluntary Settlement Agreement and has voluntarily agreed for a period of 3 years, beginning on August 26, 2014:

(1) To have his research supervised; Respondent agrees that prior to the submission of an application for U.S. PHS support for a research project on which the Respondent’s participation is proposed and prior to Respondent’s participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of Respondent’s duties is submitted to ORI for approval; the supervision plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of Respondent’s research; Respondent agrees that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a supervision plan is submitted to and approved by ORI; Respondent agrees to maintain responsibility for compliance with the agreed upon supervision plan;

(2) that any institution employing him shall submit, in conjunction with each application for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research in which Respondent is involved, a certification to ORI that the data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the data, procedures, and methodology are accurately reported in the application, report, manuscript, or abstract; and

(3) to exclude himself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant.

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Findings of Research Misconduct

Two rather different cases …

Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case: Based on an investigation conducted by Advocate Health Care Network d/b/a Advocate Health Care (Advocate Health Care) and additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI and Advocate Health Care found that Parag Patel, DO engaged in research misconduct in research supported by  grant U01 HL089458.

ORI and Advocate Health Care found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by directing or intimidating fellows and others to influence left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) scores of <= 35% and requesting attending physicians to reassess scores of LVEF to be reported as <= 35% for research subjects after being diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, thereby causing and being responsible for falsification of research records. These falsifications made subjects eligible for enrollment into the Vest Prevention of Early Sudden Death Trial (VEST) when they otherwise may not have been eligible.

The Respondent, Advocate Health Care, and the U.S. DHHS want to conclude this matter without further expenditure of time or other resources and have entered into a Voluntary Settlement Agreement (Agreement) to resolve this matter. Respondent neither admits nor denies ORI’s and Advocate Health Care’s findings of research misconduct. This settlement does not constitute an admission of liability on the part of the Respondent.

Dr. Patel has voluntarily agreed for a period of 2 years, beginning on February 21, 2014:

(1) To have any U.S. Public Health Service (PHS)-supported research in which he is involved be supervised; Respondent agreed that prior to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on which the Respondent’s participation is proposed and prior to Respondent’s participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of Respondent’s duties is submitted to ORI for approval; the supervision plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of Respondent’s research contribution as outlined below; Respondent agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a supervision plan is submitted to and approved by ORI; Respondent agreed to maintain responsibility for compliance with the agreed-upon supervision plan;

(2) That the requirements for Respondent’s supervision plan are as follows: A committee of 2-3 qualified physicians at the institution’s discretion, who are familiar with Respondent’s field of research, but not including Respondent’s supervisor or collaborators, will provide oversight and guidance; the committee will review primary data from Respondent’s participation in PHS-supported research on a quarterly basis and submit a report to ORI at 6 month intervals setting forth the committee’s meeting dates, Respondent’s compliance with appropriate research standards, and confirming the integrity of Respondent’s research contribution; and The committee will conduct an advance review of any PHS grant applications (including supplements, resubmissions, etc.), manuscripts reporting PHS-funded research submitted for publication, and abstracts; the review will include a discussion with Respondent of the primary data represented in those documents and will include a certification to ORI that the data presented in the proposed application/publication are supported by the research record; (3) That any institution employing him shall submit, in conjunction with each application for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research in which Respondent is involved, a certification to ORI that the data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the data, procedures, and methodology are accurately reported in the application, report, manuscript, or abstract; and (4) To exclude himself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant.

***

Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case: Based on evidence and findings of an investigation report by Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) transmitted to ORI in April 2010 and additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Li Chen, PhD, former Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Gene and Cell Medicine, engaged in research misconduct in research that was supported by grants R01 DK062972 and P20 GM075019 and was submitted in grant applications R01 DK074695, R01 DK083286, P20 GM075019, and R01 NS062054.

ORI found that the Respondent intentionally, knowingly, and recklessly fabricated and falsified data reported in 4 publications, 1 submitted manuscript, and 4 grant applications:

  • Chen, L., & Woo, S.L.C. Complete and persistent phenotypic correction of phenylketonuria in mice by site-specific genome integration of murine phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(43):15581-15586, October 2005 (hereafter referred to as PNAS 2005).
  • Chen, L., Thung, S.N., & Woo, S.L.C. Metabolic Basis of Sexual Dimorphism in PKU Mice After Genome-targeted PAH Gene Therapy. Mol. Ther. 15:1079-1085, June 2007; Retracted in December 2010 (hereafter referred to as Mol. Ther. June 2007).
  • Chen, L., & Woo, S.L.C. Correction in Female PKU Mice by Repeated Administration of mPAH cDNA Using phiBT1 Integration System. Mol. Ther. 15:1789-1795, October 2007; Retracted in December 2010 (hereafter referred to as Mol. Ther. Oct. 2007).
  • Chen, L., & Woo, S.L.C. Site-Specific Transgene Integration in the Human Genome Catalyzed by [Ouml]BT1 Phage Integrase. Hum. Gene Ther. 19:143-151, February 2008; Retracted in August 2010 (hereafter referred to as HGT 2008).
  • Chen, L., Roy, I., Prasad, P.N., & Woo, S.L.C. Nanoparticle-Based Gene Therapy for Metabolic Disorders: Hepatic Delivery of Minicircle DNA for Complete Correction of Phenylketonuria. Submitted for publication in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (hereafter referred to as the PNAS 2008 manuscript).
  • R01 DK074695, “Genome-targeted PAH Gene Integration in PKU Mice and Sexual Dimorphism,’ Savio L.C. Wood, PhD, PI
  • P20 GM075019, “Growth, Differentiation & Genetic Alteration of Human ES Cells,’ Gordon M. Keller, PhD, PI
  • R01 NS062054, “Nanoparticle-medicated Gene Therapy for PKU,’ Savio L. Woo, PhD, PI
  • R01 DK083285, “Nanoparticle-Mediated Gene Therapy PKU,’ Savio L. Woo, PhD, PI

The Respondent fabricated figures reporting the chromosomal locations of integration sites, fabricated data reporting the use of PCR to determine integration frequencies, falsified data representing the detection of chromosomal translocations in human cells, and fabricated figures by falsely reporting the results of HPLC assays. The Respondent also falsified experimental data for LacZ stained liver sections and for H&E stained liver sections.

Specifically, ORI finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the Respondent engaged in misconduct in science and research misconduct by intentionally, knowingly, and recklessly:

1. fabricating and/or falsifying 19 figures by falsely reporting that PKU gene therapy experiments were successfully completed, when the available evidence shows the experiments were not performed; specifically the Respondent:

(a) fabricated figures where DNA sequencing was purportedly used to identify the chromosomal locations of integration sites for the PAH gene in mouse and human cells, reported in 7 figures:

  • PNAS 2005, Figure 2A
  • HGT 2008, Figures 3b and 3c
  • R01 NS062054, Figures 3 and 20
  • R01 DK074695, Figure 6
  • R01 DK083286, Figure 17
  • P20 GM075019, Figure 4

(b) fabricated data purportedly representing the use of PCR to determine integration frequencies for the PAH gene and the secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene, in mouse and human cells, reported in 11 figures:

  • PNAS 2005, Figures 2C and 3B
  • Mol. Ther. June 2007, Figures 2a and 5a
  • Mol. Ther. Oct. 2007, Figures 2d and 5a
  • HGT 2008, Figure 4 R01 NS062054, Figures 4b and 10a
  • R01 DK074695, Figure 7b
  • R01 DK083286, Figure 2b

(c) falsified figures representing the detection of chromosomal tranlocations in human cells, purportedly determined by PCR in 2 figures:

  • HGT 2008, Figure 5a
  • R01 NS062054, Figure 21a

2. fabricating the results of HPLC assays to show generally lowered blood levels of phenylalanine after PKU gene therapy and to show liver levels of BH4 when the Respondent did not have the HPLC data needed to support those claims; specifically the Respondent:

(a) fabricated serum phenylalanine graphs in:

  • PNAS 2005, Figure 4B; this false data also is presented in R01 DK074695, Figure 10b
  • Mol. Ther. June 2007, Figure 1a; this false data also is presented in R01 DK074695, Figure 11
  • R01 DK083286, Figure 3; this false data also is presented in Mol. Ther. June 2007, Figure 3, and R01 NS062054, Figure 7
  • Mol. Ther. Oct. 2007, Figure 4a; this false data also is presented in R01 NS062054, Figure 9a
  • PNAS 2008 manuscript, Figure 4

(b) fabricated graphs for BH4 levels in:

  • Mol. Ther. June 2007, Figure 5c; this false data also is presented in R01 NS062054, Figure 8c

3. falsely reporting the results of LacZ stained liver sections by reusing and relabeling an image and claiming that it represents different experiments; specifically, the same image was used to represent mice treated with a nanoplex gene delivery system in R01 NS062054, Figure 14b (right panel), and also to represent a wholly different experiment for mice treated with 10 injections of the phiBT1 integrase system alone in R01 NS062054, Figure 4c (right panel), and Mol. Ther. Oct. 2007, Figure 2b (D panel)

4. falsely reporting the results of H&E stained liver sections in R01 NS062054, Figure 6, by using the identical image to represent 4 different experimental treatments of H&E stained liver sections; specifically the Respondent reused and relabeled one image to represent liver sections from mice that received either 1 or 10 injections, with or without the phiBT1 integrase plasmid.

The Respondent failed to take responsibility for the fabrication and falsification described in ORI’s findings.

The following administrative actions have been implemented for a period of 3 years, beginning on April 11, 2014:

(1) Respondent is debarred from any contracting or subcontracting with any agency of the United States Government and from eligibility for, or involvement in, nonprocurement programs of the United States Government referred to as “covered transactions’ pursuant to HHS’ Implementation (2 CFR part 376 et seq.) of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Guidelines to Agencies on Governmentwide Debarment and Suspension, 2 CFR part 180 (collectively the “Debarment Regulations’); and

(2) Respondent is prohibited from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS, including but not limited to service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant.

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Findings of Research Misconduct

A hat trick, including cases demonstrating  a role for alert readers and the reason ORI must operate outside the NIH …

Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case:

Dong-Pyou Han, Ph.D., Iowa State University of Science and Technology: Based on the report of an inquiry conducted by the Iowa State University of Science and Technology (ISU), a detailed admission by the Respondent, and additional analysis conducted by ORI, ORI and ISU found that Dong-Pyou Han, PhD, former Research Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Services, ISU, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by grants P01AI074286, R33AI076083, and U19AI091031.

ORI and ISU found that the Respondent falsified results in research to develop a vaccine against HIV-1 by intentionally spiking samples of rabbit sera with antibodies to provide the desired results. The falsification made it appear that rabbits immunized with the gp41-54 moiety of the HIV gp41 glycoprotein induced antibodies capable of neutralizing a broad range of HIV-1 strains, when the original sera were weakly or non-reactive in neutralization assays. Falsified neutralization assay results were widely reported in laboratory meetings, 7 national and international symposia between 2010 and 2012, and in grant applications and progress reports. Specifically:

a. Respondent falsified research materials when he provided collaborators with sera for neutralization assays from (i) rabbits immunized with peptides from HIV gp41-54Q (and related antigens HR1-54Q, gp41-54Q-OG, gp41-54Q-GHC, gp41-54Q-Cys and Cys-gp41-54Q) to assay HIV neutralizing activity, when Respondent had spiked the samples with human IgG known to contain broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1; and (ii) rabbits immunized with HIV gp41-54Q to assay HIV neutralizing activity, when Respondent had spiked the samples with sera from rabbits immunized with HIV-1 gp120 that neutralized HIV.

b. Respondent falsified data files for neutralization assays, and provided false data to his laboratory colleagues, to make it appear that rabbits immunized with gp41-54Q and recombinant Lactobacillus expressing gp41-64 produced broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, by changing the numbers to show that samples with little or no neutralizing activity had high activity.

Dr. Han has entered into a Voluntary Exclusion Agreement and has voluntarily agreed for a period of 3 years, beginning on November 25, 2013:

(1) To exclude himself from any contracting or subcontracting with any agency of the United States Government and from eligibility or involvement in nonprocurement programs of the United States Government referred to as “covered transactions’ pursuant to HHS’ Implementation (2 CFR Part 376 et seq) of OMB Guidelines to Agencies on Governmentwide Debarment and Suspension, 2 CFR Part 180 (collectively the “Debarment Regulations’); and

(2) To exclude himself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to the U.S. PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant.

More at Retraction Watch.

Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case:

Based on the report of an investigation conducted by SAIC-Frederick, Inc., and additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Timothy Sheehy, BA, BSc, former Manager, DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., the Operations and Technical Services Contractor for the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by NCI contract HHSN2612008000001E to SAIC-Frederick, Inc., and the intramural program at the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI.

ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by fabricating and/or falsifying U.S. PHS-supported data in Table 1 included in Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19(4):973-977, 2010 (hereafter referred to as the “CEBP paper’). Specifically, ORI found that Respondent fabricated the quantitative and qualitative data for RNA and DNA purportedly extracted from 900 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal tissue samples presented in Table 1 of the CEBP paper and falsely reported successful methodology to simultaneously recover nucleic acids from FFPE tissue specimens, when neither the extractions nor analyses of the FFPE samples were done. Thus, the main conclusions of the CEBP paper are based on fabricated data and are false.

Mr. Sheehy has entered into a Voluntary Settlement Agreement and has voluntarily agreed for a period of 3 years, beginning on November 8, 2013:

(1) To have his research supervised; Respondent agreed that prior to the submission of an application for U.S. PHS support for a research project on which the Respondent’s participation is proposed and prior to Respondent’s participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of his duties is submitted to ORI for approval; the supervision plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of Respondent’s research contribution; Respondent agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a supervision plan is submitted to and approved by ORI; Respondent agreed to maintain responsibility for compliance with the agreed-upon supervision plan;

(2) That any institution employing him shall submit, in conjunction with each application for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research in which Respondent is involved, a certification to ORI that the data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the data, procedures, and methodology are accurately reported in the application, report, manuscript, or abstract;

(3) To exclude himself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant; and

(4) That a letter will be submitted to the editors of CEBP requesting that the journal retract the publication.

More at Retraction Watch.

Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case:

Based on allegations made by readers of a published paper, additional review by the (NIH and ORI, and a limited admission by the Respondent that “some better looking strips were repeatedly used as representatives for several times [sic],’ ORI found that Baoyan Xu, MD, PhD, formerly a Postdoctoral Fellow, Hematology Branch, Systems Biology Center, NHLBI, and currently at the Institute of Infectious Diseases, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chonqing, China, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by intramural research at NHLBI.

The questioned research involves a Western blot analysis of IgM and IgG antibodies from Chinese subjects in patients with non-A-E hepatitis and control subjects to test reactivity towards a newly discovered virus. Analysis of Figure 6 of the published paper and Figure S4 of the online supplemental information identified 13 pairs of Western blot bands which had a common origin yet were labeled as from different subjects and usually as detecting a different class of immunoglobulin. [notice includes full table]

The Respondent agreed to correction of Figures 6 and S4 of the PNAS paper [Xu, B., Zhi, N., Hu, G., Wan, Z., Zheng, X., Liu, X., Wong, S., Kajigaya, S., Zhao, K., Mao, Q., & Young, N.S. “Hybrid DNA virus in Chinese patients with seronegative hepatitis discovered by deep sequencing.’ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (US) 110(25):10264-10269].

Dr. Xu has entered into a Voluntary Settlement Agreement and has voluntarily agreed for a period of 3 years, beginning on December 6, 2013:

(1) That prior to the submission of an application for U.S. PHS support (including NIH support) for a research project on which the Respondent’s participation is proposed, and prior to Respondent’s participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of her duties is submitted to ORI for approval; the supervision plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of Respondent’s research contribution; Respondent agrees that she shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a supervision plan is submitted to and approved by ORI; Respondent agrees to maintain responsibility for compliance with the agreed-upon supervision plan;

(2) That any institution employing her shall submit, in conjunction with each application for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research in which Respondent is involved, a certification to ORI that the data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived, that the data procedures, and methodology are accurately reported in the application, report, manuscript, or abstract, and that the text in such submission is her own or properly cites the source of copied language and ideas; and

(3) To exclude herself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant.

More at Retraction Watch.

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Findings of Research Misconduct

Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case:

Based on the admission of the Respondent, ORI found that Pratima Karnik, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, engaged in research misconduct in research submitted to the NIH in grant application R01 AR062378.

ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by plagiarizing significant portions from research grant application R21 AR061881, which she had reviewed for NIAMS, NIH, and inserting that text into her submitted grant application R01 AR062378-01. Respondent also plagiarized significant portions of text from the following scientific articles and one U.S. patent application available on the Internet:

  • BMC Med Genomics 4:8, 2011
  • J Am Col. Cardiol 52:117-123, 2008
  • Nature 457:910-914, 2009
  • J Autoimmun 29:310-318, 2007
  • U.S. Patent Application No. 20090047269 (published Feb. 19, 2009)
  • Toxicol Pathol 35:952-957, 2007
  • BMC Med Genomics 1:10, 2008
  • Open Systems Biology Journal 1:1-8, 2008
  • Endocrinology 146:4189-4191, 2005.

Dr. Karnik has entered into a Voluntary Settlement Agreement and has voluntarily agreed for a period of 2 years, beginning on July 22, 2013:

  1. To have her research supervised; Respondent agreed that prior to the submission of an application for U.S. PHS support for a research project on which her participation is proposed and prior to her participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of her duties is submitted to ORI for approval; the supervision plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of her research contribution; she agreed that she shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a supervision plan is submitted to and approved by ORI; Respondent agreed to maintain responsibility for compliance with the agreed upon supervision plan;
  2. That any institution employing her shall submit in conjunction with each application for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research in which Respondent is involved, a certification to ORI that the content is free of plagiarized material, data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived, and that the data, procedures, and methodology are accurately reported in the application, report, manuscript, or abstract; and
  3. To exclude herself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant.

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Findings of Research Misconduct

Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case:

Based on the report of an inquiry conducted by Advanced Liquid Logic Inc., the Respondent’s admission, and additional analysis conducted by ORI, ORI found that Mr. Matthew Poore, former Technician, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by NIAID contract HHSN272200900030C.

ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying data that were included in 1 presentation and 1 report to NIAID and in laboratory records at Liquid Logic.

ORI finds that Respondent knowingly and intentionally falsified reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results by reporting the results from previous experiments as the actual results, when the experiments had not been performed. Specifically:

    In Liquid Logic laboratory documents, the Respondent falsified the RT-PCR results of HIV viral loads in whole blood patient samples by falsely changing previous results for 2 samples from negative to positive and 1 sample from positive to negative. The latter falsified sample result, changed from HIV positive to negative, was included in an April 1-June 30, 2012, quarterly report and a July 12, 2012, presentation to NIAID.

    In Liquid Logic laboratory documents, the Respondent falsified the RT-PCR whole blood lysis results of testing samples as 100 and 200 HIV viral copies per milliliter, when the experiments were not performed by the Respondent. These falsified results were included in an April 1-June 30, 2012, quarterly report to NIAID.

    In Liquid Logic laboratory documents, the Respondent falsified the graphs of RT-PCR results of the Escherichia coli bacteriophage MS2, an internal control, viral loads for 3 clinical samples, when the results were actually from prior experiments of 2 controls and 1 unrelated clinical sample. The Respondent falsified the MS2 graphs in an effort to conceal that RT-PCR experiments of the clinical samples had not been performed.

Mr. Poore has entered into a Voluntary Settlement Agreement and has voluntarily agreed for a period of 3 years, beginning on April 1, 2013:

(1) To have his research supervised; Respondent agreed that prior to the submission of an application for U.S. PHS support for a research project on which his participation is proposed and prior to his participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of his duties is submitted to ORI for approval; the supervision plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of his research contribution; he agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a supervision plan is submitted to and approved by ORI; Respondent agreed to maintain responsibility for compliance with the agreed upon supervision plan; and

(2) To exclude himself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant.

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Findings of Research Misconduct

Notice the unusual notice for this decade-long case … additional details at Retraction Watch, “including [via the Seattle Times] Aprikyan’s own account that a technician working with him at one point wrote research notes on “approximately 30 paper towels,” and the notes were never transcribed.”

Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case:

Based on the report of an investigation conducted by the University of Washington (UW), the UW School of Medicine Dean’s Decision, the Decision of the Hearing Panel at UW, and additional analysis conducted by ORI, ORI found by a preponderance of the evidence that Andrew Aprikyan, PhD former Research Assistant Professor, Division of Hematology, UW, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by R01CA89135 and R01DK18951, and applies to the following publications and grant applications:

    Blood pre-published online on January 16, 2003 (NEM)
    Experimental Hematology 31:372-381, 2003 (CMA)
    Blood 97:147-153, 2001 (ISB)
    R01 CA89135-01A1
    R01 HL73063-01
    R01 HL79615-01

Blood pre-published online on January 16, 2003 has been retracted, and Experimental Hematology 31:372-381, 2003 has been corrected.

Specifically, ORI finds that, by a preponderance of the evidence, Respondent falsified and/or fabricated results relating to the above publications and grants. Specifically, Respondent:

    1. Falsely reported sequencing data in the NEM manuscript to strengthen the hypothesis that NE mutations contributed to the phenotype observed in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) patients. Specifically:

      a. Respondent falsely reported in Figures 2A and 3 that patient 3 had the R191Q neutrophil elastase (NE) mutation, when the majority of the sequencing experiments showed that the mutation was not present.

      b. Respondent fabricated text (p. 12) reporting that sequencing of RT-PCR products confirmed the expression of the NE mutants in the SCN patients and that no mutations were present in the granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) gene and the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) gene in SCN patients, when based on the lack of original records the experiments were not performed. The false claim for G-CSFR sequencing was also reported in CA89135-03.

    2. Falsely reported a two-fold increase in apoptosis of human promyelocytic (HL-60) cells transfected with NE mutants compared to wild type NE in Figure 4A, NEM, Figure 6A, CMA, Figure 8, HL73063-01, and Figure 7, HL79615-01. Respondent used arbitrary flow cytometry data files to generate histograms with the desired result. The false results supported the hypothesis that the NE mutations were sufficient for impaired survival of human myeloid cells.

    3. Falsified NE and β-actin Western blots in Figure 4B Blood, pre-published online January 16, 2003, Figure 5B of the manuscript initially submitted to Blood April 2002, and Figure 6B Experimental Hematology 31:372-381, 2003, by falsely labeling lanes to support the hypothesis that accelerated apoptosis in mutant NE transfect HL-60 cells was due to the mutation and not the level of protein present. Specifically:

      a. Respondent used portions of a single NE Western blot to represent: Figure 4B as HL-60 cells transfected with L92H, R191Q, and wtNE, when the cells were transfected with R191Q, P110L, and D145-152; Figure 5B as HL-60 transfected with wtNE, mutNE, and EGFP when they were cells transfected with NE mutants, P110L, D145-152, and 194

      b. Respondent used portions of a single β-actin Western blot to represent: Figure 4B as HL-60 cells transfected with L92H, R191Q, and wtNE, when they were cells transfected with I31T, P110L, and G185R mutants; Figure 5B as HL-60 cells transfected with wtNE, mutNE, and EGFP, when they were cells transfected with P110L, I31T, and INE; Figure 6B as HL-60 cells transfected with G185R, mock, D145-152, and P110L NE mutants, when they were cells transfected with I31T, P110L, G185R, and 32. The false β-actin Western blot in Figure 6B was also included in HL73063-01, Figure 8 (where the I31Tlane was labeled correctly), and HL79615-01, Figure 7.

    4. Falsified the reported methodology for flow cytometry experiments in Figure 4A, NEM, Figures 1 and 2, and Tables 2 and 3, CMA, and Figures 4, 5, and 6, ISB, to validate the key hypothesis showing accelerated apoptosis in SCN and CN patients. The methodology claimed that flow cytometry experiments were gated for GFP+ populations, or that cell purity was greater than 96%, when based on the available original records, the experiments were not performed as stated.

    5. Falsified Figure 2, CMA, Figure 2, HL73063-01, Figure 3, HL79615-01, and Figure 5, CA89135-01A1, demonstrating that the overnight cultures of CD34+ and CD33+ bone marrow cells from SCN/AML patients showed normal cell survival, and only the CD15+ overnight cultures showed accelerated apoptosis, when the actual record available contradicted this result. Respondent used flow cytometry data files to generate histograms with the desired result to support the hypothesis that the progression from SCN to leukemia (AML) involves acquired G-CSFR mutations that override the pro-apoptotic effect of the NE mutations in primitive progenitor cells.

Dr. Aprikyan has entered into a Settlement Agreement in which he denied ORI’s findings of research misconduct based on the UW Faculty Adjudication Hearing Panel decision. The settlement is not an admission of liability on the part of the Respondent. Respondent entered into the Agreement solely because contesting the findings would cause him undue financial hardship and stress, lead to lengthy and costly appellate proceedings, and he wished to seek finality. Respondent agreed not to appeal the ORI findings of research misconduct set forth above. He has agreed, beginning on March 12, 2013:

    (1) If within 2 years from the effective date of the Agreement, Respondent receives or applies for U.S. PHS support, Respondent agreed to have his research supervised for a period of 2 years; Respondent agreed that prior to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on which his participation is proposed and prior to his participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of his duties is submitted to ORI for approval; the supervision plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of his research contribution; Respondent agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a supervision plan is submitted to and approved by ORI; Respondent agreed to maintain responsibility for compliance with the agreed upon supervision plan;

    (2) If within 2 years from the effective date of the Agreement, Respondent receives PHS support, Respondent agreed that for 2 years, any institution employing him shall submit, in conjunction with each application for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research in which Respondent is involved, a certification to ORI that the data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the data, procedures, and methodology are accurately reported in the application, report, manuscript, or abstract; and

    (3) Respondent agreed not to serve in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant for a period of 2 years beginning with the effective date of the Agreement.

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Findings of Research Misconduct

Notice is hereby given that ORI has taken final action in the following case:

Based on the report from Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) and Respondent’s admission, ORI found that Mr. Adam C. Savine, former doctoral student, Department of Psychology, WUSTL, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by grants R56MH066078, F31DA032152, R21DA027821, and T32AG00030.

ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying data that were included in the following 3 publications and 6 conference abstracts:

Publications

    1. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. “Local and global effects of motivation on cognitive control.’ Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 12(4):692-718, 2012 Dec.

    2. Savine, A.C., McDaniel, M.A., Shelton, J.T., Scullin, M.K. “A characterization of individual differences in prospective memory monitoring using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task.’ J Exp Psychol Gen. 141(2):337-62, 2012 May.

    3. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. “Motivated cognitive control: Reward incentives modulate preparatory neural activity during task- switching.’ J Neurosci. 30(31):10294-305, 2010 Aug 4.

Conference Abstracts

    1. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. (November 2010) “The contextual and local effects of motivation on cognitive control.’ Psychonomics Society, St. Louis, MO.

    2. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. (November 2010) “A model-based characterization of the individual differences in prospective memory monitoring.’ Psychonomics Society, St. Louis, MO.

    3. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. (November 2010) “Motivated cognitive control: Reward incentives modulate preparatory neural activity during task-switching.’ Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.

    4. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. (June 2010) “Motivated cognitive control: Reward incentives modulate preparatory neural activity during task-switching.’ Motivation and Cognitive Control Conference, Oxford, England.

    5. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. (January 2010) “Neural correlates of the motivation/cognitive control interaction: Activation dynamics and Performance prediction during task-switching.’ Genetic and Experiential Influences on Executive Function, Boulder, CO.

    6. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. (June 2009) “Incentive Induced Changes in Neural Patterns During Task-Switching.’ Organization for Human Brain Mapping, San Francisco, CA.

As a result of the Respondent’s admission, the senior authors will request that the published papers be retracted or corrected.

ORI finds that Respondent falsified data and related text by altering the experimental data to improve the statistical results. Specifically, Respondent:

    1. Falsified data in Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2012 to show an unambiguous dissociation between local and global motivational effects. Specifically, Respondent exaggerated (1) the effect of incentive context on response times and error rates in Table 1 and Figures 1 and 3 for experiment 1 and (2) the effect of incentive cue timing on response times and error rates in Table 2 and in Figures 6, 9, and S2 for experiment 2.

    2. Falsified data in J Exp Psychol Gen. 2012 to show that prospective memory is influenced by three dissociable underlying monitoring patterns (attentional focus, secondary memory retrieval, information thresholding), which are stable within individuals over time and are influenced by personality and cognitive differences. Specifically, Respondent modified the data to support the three category model and to show (1) that individuals fitting into each of the three categories exhibited differential patterns of prospective memory performance and ongoing task performance in Tables 1-3; Figures 5-8, and (2) that certain cognitive and personality differences were predictive of distinct monitoring approaches within the three categories in Figure 9.

    3. Falsified data in J Neurosci. 2010 and mislabeled brain images to show that motivational incentives enhance task-switching performance and are associated with activation of reward-related brain regions, behavioral performance, and trial outcomes. Specifically, Respondent modified the data so that he could show a stronger relationship between brain activity and behavior in Table 2 and Figure 4 and used brain images that fit the data rather than the images that corresponded to the actual Talairach coordinates in Figure 3.

Mr. Savine has entered into a Voluntary Settlement Agreement and has voluntarily agreed for a period of 3 years, beginning on February 22, 2013:

    (1) To have his research supervised; Respondent agreed that prior to the submission of an application for U.S. PHS support for a research project on which his participation is proposed and prior to his participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of his duties is submitted to ORI for approval; the supervision plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of his research contribution; he agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a supervision plan is submitted to and approved by ORI; Respondent agreed to maintain responsibility for compliance with the agreed upon supervision plan;

    (2) That any institution employing him shall submit, in conjunction with each application for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research in which Respondent is involved, a certification to ORI that the data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the data, procedures, and methodology are accurately reported in the application, report, manuscript, or abstract;

    (3) To exclude himself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant; and

    (4) That the senior authors will request that the following papers be retracted or corrected: Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2012, J Exp Psychol Gen. 2012, and J Neurosci. 2010.

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